Farm Animals


 Rodents, Rabbits and Birds

Viktor Reinhardt: Hair-pulling in macaques

Partner-directed hair-pulling is a maladaptive behavior because it often causes pain and distress.


Viktor Reinhardt: Privacy panel for macaques

A privacy panel with a passage hole at the back wall of the cage allows paired macaque companions to get away from each other's field of vision. This minimizes agonistic interactions and avoids competition over access to the food boxes.

Jennifer Green: Pole-and-collar training of a macaque male

Working with a male rhesus macaque who has been successfully pole-and-collar chair trained



Brahm has been poled and is willingly climbing out of the home cage.

Brahm is on the floor and has tunred his body to walk straight to the chair.



Brahm picked up his grape before moving into the chair.

Brahm has climbed up the chair and is about to turn his body
around to face the wall so I can close the chair door safely. Usually Brahm holds onto the pole at this point. There is no force being added to him with the pole.


He is in the chair and I am closing the neck plate. We use the pole as a guard during this to prevent him from turning around to bite, although he never attempts to do this.


Tamara Godbey: Branches for primates

Branches provide optimal spatial enrichment for macaques by making the vertical dimension of the primary enclosure accessible.

Moshe Bushmitz: Long-tailed macaques foraging and playing






Foraging and play in long-tailed macaques kept as a group in a large outdoor enclosure in Israel





Viktor Reinhardt: Alopecia in rhesus male

Beta male of a stable rhesus breeding troop affected by unspecific generalized alopecia [not caused by hair-pulling and -eating]. Removal from the troop and cage-housing with two male juveniles 'cured' the male. He had a full coat regrown within one month.


N.D.: Human-animal relationship

A mutually affectionate relationship between animal and caretaker can function as a powerful stress buffer for the animal.

Yoshikazu Ueno: Frame-Kit Tower for Japanese Macaques


The Frame-Kit Tower for Japanese macaques at the PRI, Kyoto University.
The monkeys spend more than 80% of their time on structures at a level 4 m
or higher.

Yoshikazu Ueno



N. D.: Primates swimming



1. (above left) Primates swimming: "Piglet in her pool. She actually goes right under water. All the girls in this large activity cage love playing with and in water!"

2. (above right) More Primates swimming

3. (left) "Maple looking at me!"


Moshe Bushmitz: Swimming pool for macaques

 Macaques in the swimming pool.

Moshe Bushmitz: Perches for long-tailed macaques

Wide perches: "We found platforms much better as the social activity on a narrow bar is limited to an interaction between 2 individuals, but in the platform shape perches we can easily see 4-5 individuals doing " group grooming."



The provision of well-placed, high resting surfaces not only opens up the arboreal, quasi-safe dimension for macaques but it also fosters social harmony.