Primates II


N. D.: Old style primate cage without and with tunnel

Left without tunnel and right with tunnel. The cages are about 3.5 feet wide, 4 feet deep and 4 feet tall. The tunnel is 2 feet wide, 2 feet tall and 2.5 feet deep. Each cage has a hammock as well as two small parallel bars underneath the hammock . The back walls of the cage move forward for squeezing.

N. D.: Hammocks in regular primate cages

The green hammock is made out of some kind of nylon. It's pretty sturdy, although over time one of our girls chewed the end of it. It cleans well. If soaked with water for a bit, it rinses pretty clean. It's also handy in that feces and food pieces can fall through the holes so that the girls are not always sitting on the debris.

The black leather hammock is handmade. The ends of the leather are partially wrapped around a long PVC tube. The screws in the ends have a round hook instead of a typical flat head. They are sturdy, and easy to clean. The chain or other hanging device clips onto the hook. In the 3 years I've been here, we've had one screw break.

N. D.: Female foraging in large activity cage

Gerdie, our easy-going alpha female, foraging in the large activity cage's foraging trays. You can see all the toys and perches in the background.

N. D.: Large primate activity cage

"Photo of our large activity cage that we recently bought for our Rhesus. Height inside the cage is just under 6 feet, it is about 20 feet wide and 6 feet deep. We had to divide it into two due to the fact that the group of primates inside was not getting along. We have several movable perches, a tire swing and two large trays that can be filled with water or forage material. We rotate the girls through it and from both sides so that everyone gets a chance to play."

Viktor Reinhardt: Mirrors

Macaques respond to their own mirror image (left photo: impressive threat stare) and to the mirror image of a conspecific (right photo: submissive fear grin). (contact:

Viktor Reinhardt: Foraging device for Macaques


 Offering the standard food ration in the ordinary food box mounted away from the access hole does not cost any extra labor and material but induces skillful foraging behavior in macaques. I have used this simple technique for several years with several hundred rhesus and 40 stump-tailed macaques with no adverse effects.

Reinhardt V 1993. Promoting increased foraging behaviour in caged stumptailed macaques. Folia Primatologica 61, 47-51

Reinhardt V 1993. Enticing nonhuman primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology 12, 307-312

Reinhardt V 1993. Evaluation of an inexpensive custom-made food puzzle used as primary feeder for pair-housed rhesus macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 32(3), 7-8



Viktor Reinhardt: Macaque housing


 Pair-housed rhesus males grooming each other (contact:



Perches should not be placed so low that the space beneath them cannot be used by the occupants for postural adjustments with freedom of movement (contact:



 Single-caged rhesus macaque engaged in self-biting

LAREF PHOTOS III: Rodents, rabbits and birds

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