Expressions and Gestures that Communicate Feelings and Intentions in Rhesus and Stump-tailed Macaques

Positive expressions/gestures

 

 

 Play face [blocks aggression]: "Let's play with each other!"


 

Reassurance gesture [left photo] and appeasement face [right photo]: "I am protecting you and try to appease those who harassed you."


 
Re-directed appeasement gesture: "The investigator has finally left our room! All is okay!"


 

 

Lipsmacking: mutual reassurance gesture after an alarming situation.

 

 


 
Lipsmacking: "I like you but don't trust you completely."


 

 

Big smile [blocks aggression]


 
Big smile [blocks aggression]: "It's nice to see you! I know that I can trust you. "


 
Relaxed face: "We have no problems with you watching us."


 

 Relaxed face: "I know that I can trust you."


 
 

Relaxed face: "I like what you are doing with me."


 
 Subordination gesture [blocks aggression]: "I acknowledge that your are dominant and would like to be in your company."


Alert Face

 
Alert face: "I am not quite sure if I can trust you, so you may want to re-consider what you intend to do with me."


 

 Alert face: "I am not quite sure if I can trust you."


Threat faces/gestures

Threat posture: "We will both attack if you don't flee quickly!"


 

Low intensity open-mouth threat: "I am fed up with you looking at us!"

High intensity open-mouth threat: "If you don't leave I will try to bite you!"


 

 

Low intensity open-mouth threat: "I am fed up with you looking at me!"

High intensity open-mouth threat: "Now I am really mad at you. Go away!"


 
Open-mouth threat: "I am scared and feel cornered and will not hesitate biting you in self-defense."


 

 

Open-mouth threat: "I am scared and feel cornered and will not hesitate biting you in self-defense."


 

High intensity open-mouth threat: "I am extremely frustrated. I am fed up with being imprisoned with no option of attacking you or escaping."

 


 
Low intensity open-mouth treat: "You better don't touch this melon!"

 


 

 

Displacement yawning: "I feel a bit uncomfortable with you being around, but I have no aggressive intention right now." [Adult male rhesus macaque with infant companion]


 

 Self assured: "Look who I am!"


 

 A little bit scared: "I am ready to run away if needed."


 
Raised eyebrow threat: "I am not very self-confident, but I still have the guts to threaten you."


 

 

 

Intense raised eyebrow and open-mouth threat: "I am very, very mad, but not necessarily ready to attack." 
 


Negative expressions

 
Anxiety: "I am afraid because I don't know what you will do with me. If needed I will try to escape rather than attack you."


 

 Depression posture: "I am bored beyond imagination."


 
Fear grinning in response to being threatened [raised eyebrow threat] by dominant group member.


 

 

Fear grinning: "I am scared of you because you cause me pain. I would like to resort to aggressive self-defense but I don't dare."


 
 Fear grimace of a distressed animal.