Annotated Bibliography on
Refinement and Environmental Enrichment
 for Primates kept in Laboratories
Last update: February 2008

Viktor & Annie Reinhardt

Animal Welfare Institute

This bibliography offers animal caregivers, animal technicians, veterinarians, zoo keepers and students guidance to practical information on refinement and environmental enrichment for primates kept in research institutions. Theoretical and purely descriptive reports are not included.

Newest entries are marked with *

Table of Contents

Species-typical Behavior

Abnormal Behavior

Extraneous Variables

(1)   Definition
(2)   Scientific Principles
(3)   Insufficient/Inadequate Space
(4)   Barren Environment
(5)   Single-caging
(6)   Premature Weaning
(7)   Enforced Restraint

(8) Queue Effect, Sequential Treatment
(9)   Unfamiliar Environment
(10)   Double-tier Cage Arrangement
(11) Neighbor Effect
(12) Observer Effect, Presence of Personnel

(13) Noise


(1)    Definition
(2,a) Unstructured Space

2,b) Structured Space
(2,c) Playpen, Outdoor Housing, Exercise Cage
(3)   Inanimate Enrichment

(4)   Acoustic Enrichment
(5)   Animate Enrichment
(6)   Natural Weaning
(7)   Working with Cooperative Animals
(8)   Treatment of Trained Animals in their Home Enclosure
(9)   Cage Arrangement

Environmental Enrichment

(1) Definition
(2) Promoting Social Behavior
(2,1,a) Group-housing: Practical Issues
(2,1,b) Group-housing: Group Formation/Introduction/Integration
(2,2,a) Pair-housing: Practical Issues, Time Budget
(2,2,b) Pair-housing: Pair formation
(2,3)   Grooming-Contact Caging
(2,4)   Positive Interaction with Humans
(3) Promoting Intelligent Behavior (positive reinforcement training)
(3,1) Basic Recommendations
(3,2) Species-specific Recommendations
(4) Promoting Foraging and Food Processing Behavior
(4,1) Foraging Devices
(4,2) Substrates
(4,3) Produce
(4,4) Ice and Water
(4,5) Food Preparation and Feeding Schedule
(5) Promoting Arboreal Behavior
(5,1) The Importance of Access to the Vertical Dimension of Space
(5,2) Elevated Structures
(6) Promoting Object-oriented Behavior
(6,1) Commercial Toys
(6,2) Wooden Objects

(6,3) Mirrors
(7) Promoting Curiosity Behavior (watching videos; looking out of the window)
(7,1) Television and Videos
(7,2) Windows

(8) Safety Concerns

Regulations and Guidelines


Ethical Considerations

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