Refinement of Housing and Handling Practices
for Caged Nonhuman Primates
Animal Welfare Institute
3. SIGNS OF REFINEMENT
4. DISTRESSING CONDITIONS
5.1. Compatible Companionship
5.2. Foraging Opportunities
5.3. Access to the Vertical Dimension
5.4. Positive Reinforcement Training
Russell and Burch (1992) introduced the concept of the 3 Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - in their 1959-book, Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The concept was endorsed by the biomedical research community in the 1980s, but only two of the 3 Rs - Replacement and Reduction - have received serious attention. The practical relevance of the third - Refinement - has largely been overlooked (Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, 2002). A search of the literature shows that articles dealing with Replacement and Reduction by far outnumber those dealing with Refinement .
|Figure 1 Results of a Scirus database search for the keyword string Animal Testing Alternatives & Use of Laboratory Animals & Refinement/Replacement/Reduction on June 30, 2007.|
This book reviews the literature on the Refinement of traditional
housing and handling practices for nonhuman primates who live
in cages alone, in pairs or trios; articles dealing with group-housed
animals (four or more animals) are not included. Published material
has been reviewed if detailed data and sufficient information
are provided that would allow the replication of the study in
a different facility. Purely descriptive or theoretical material
has not been included.
I am very grateful to my wife Annie Reinhardt, my daughter Catherine Reinhardt-Zacaïr, and the Animal Welfare Institute's Catherine Carroll and Cathy Liss for carefully checking the text and correcting grammatical errors and stylistic flaws.
It is my wish that the information compiled in this booklet will inspire animal caregivers, animal technicians, clinical veterinarians and researchers who are responsible for the welfare of caged primates to alleviate the animals' avoidable burden of distress.
| Mt. Shasta, California
Table of Contents